A correction is a non-scientific term with a multitude of definitions. Which makes it pretty useless in the world of animal training. You're not likely to hear a professional trainer who knows behavior science use this word.
What's being corrected? How does that help the dog's behavior change? What is the correction? How can you tell if it worked?
How about an aversive; what's that? A scientific word, this term describes something that's not particularly pleasant. It can be, but isn't necessarily a punishment. It will help clarify if I define punishment.
Punishment suppresses behavior. If it doesn't suppress behavior, it is not punishment. So if you "punish" your dog by yelling "Off!" when he jumps on you, and that doesn't suppress jumping, it's not punishment. Or in human terms: if you punish your teenager for missing curfew by taking away the car, and he's still coming home late, grounding him is not punishment.
So now, back to the aversive. An aversive is something that isn't pleasant. But it doesn't necessarily constitute punishment. For example, you yell "Off!" at your dog when he jumps. He doesn't particularly care for the yelling, but it doesn't stop him from jumping. In my world, an alarm clock ringing at 5:00a is an aversive. But I still set the alarm every night. No, I don't like getting up at 5:00a, but it's a fact of life.
Next time, we'll talk about reinforcements and rewards – what makes them different and why you need to know.
So, ask your dog training professional the difference between a correction, an aversive, and a punishment – and find out if he really knows his science. It makes a big difference to your success with your dog!